Ubwami mu Rwanda

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Ubwami mu Rwanda

C. Nkurunziza, August 2005

C. Nkurunziza

Conférence – débat « Histoire des monarchies dans les pays des Grands Lacs » (Rwanda, Burundi, Congo) organisée par la FEDA (Fédération Espoir d’Afrique) le mardi 7 septembre 2004 à l’occasion de la 7ème journée sur la tolérance.

I. Intangiriro

Iyo bavuze ubwami mu mateka y’u Rwanda baba bashaka kuvuga uko u Rwanda rwabayeho kuva rwabaho kugeza magingo aya. U Rwanda ni igikorwa cy’abahutu (Bantous); rwatangiye ruyoborwa n’abami b’abahutu, maze abatutsi bakoresha intambara, baza kurwigarulira, bararutegeka kugeza muli Révolution yo muli 1959, yazanye Republika na Démocratie. Kuva muli 1994,abatutsi barongeye bararwigarulira nyuma y’intambara n’amarorerwa yayogoje igihugu cyose. Ni uko u Rwanda ruhindura isura.

II. Abahutu bayobora u Rwanda

Nkuko bizwi rero mu mateka, u Rwanda ni igikorwa cy’abahutu bari abahinzi-borozi ; nibo bakonze ishyamba, maze igihugu kiraturwa kandi kigenda cyaguka, kiba kinini, ni byo bitaga mu kinyarwanda cya kera KWANDA, ari naho rero izina RWANDA ryaturutse. Ni uko icyo gihugu bakigabanyamo uduhugu twinshi bakulikije amoko yabo (clans). Maze ukumva ngo : ABAZIGABA, ABAGESERA, ABAGARA, ABUNGURA, n’andi menshi baba mu karere aka n’aka. Ayo moko yose hamwe yali ageze kuli 15.

Ikindi gikomeye, ni uko abahutu alibo badukanye ubwami mu Rwanda, maze abami b’abahutu bakabana kivandimwe, nta ngoma yabo yaba yarashatse kwigarurira izindi izwi. Dore amazina y’abami bamwe batazibagirana :

  • KABEJA (ka-beije = bareke baze): yari umwami w’abazigaba bari batuye mu Mubali {mu Mutara}, niwe wemereye IBIMANUKA (abatutsi) kwinjira mu Rwanda kuko baje batarwana, kandi bari nabake cyane.
  • MASHIRA : niwe mwami wa nyuma w’umuhutu wimye mu Nduga. Yishwe n’umwami w’umunyiginya (umututsi) Mibambwe I SEKARONGORO afashijwe n’umukobwa we NYAMPUNDU yari yarashyingiye MASHIRA uwo. MASHIRA kandi yari bamwana wa MIBAMBWE I, yari yarashyingiye umuhungu we GAHINDIRO umukobwa we BWIZA (budashira irora n’irongora). MASHIRA kandi niwe waraguriye Umunyarwanda KAREMERA ka SINZI rya NYAMUHANZA wa MUKOBWA wa NDOBA wabaye umwami wa mbere w’u Burundi ariwe NTARE I RUSATSI.
  • NZIRA: NZIRA ya MURAMIRA yari umwami w’Ubugara. Yishwe na RUGANZU II NDOLI ahorera se NDAHIRO CYAMATARE wiciwe i Rubi rw’i Nyundo (Gisenyi) n’Abakongoro, arizo ngabo za MURAMIRA. None ho kugira ngo RUGANZU ashobore guhorera se yaje aturuka i Karagwe kwa nyirasenge NYABUNYANA maze aza guhakwa kuri NZIRA amugira umugaragu we. Umunsi umwe barimu gitaramo RUGANZU akoresha amayeri yica NZIRA. Ati : « Nkwice RUGANZU rugambirira abahunde rwa MUHUMUZA nyiri ingabo irwana ituguruzwa. » Ni uko ingoma y’u Bugara irazimira burundu.

III. Ingoma nyiginya (ntutsi) mu Rwanda

Abatutsi bageze mu Rwanda baturutse mu Bugande (Nkole) bakurikiye inka zabo zashakaga ubwatsi. Aho bahingukiye ni mu Mubali w’Abazigaba himye yo umwami bise KABEJA nk’uko tumaze kubibona, maze abakira neza barinjira ; barakomeza bagera ahiswe i Gasabo kuri Muhazi (U Rwanda rwa mbere rwa Gasabo) ni uko baratura. Maze bigana abahutu nabo bashyiraho ingoma yabo bimika umwami wabo GIHANGA (cyahanze inka n’ingoma !) kandi bakora progaramu yo kwigarurira ingoma z’Abahutu maze bakiharira ubutegetsi mu Rwanda rugengwa n’ingoma imwe igenda yigarurira izindi buhoro buhoro. Uwo mugambi bawugezeho muw’i 1912 babifashijwemo n’Abazungu. Ibintu byarahindutse cyane mu mibereho y’abantu kuva icyo gihe, ubuzima bwari bushingiye k’ubuhake. Abahutu bagizwe abaja b’Abatutsi, bakabakorera imirimo yose kugira ngo bashobore gukomeza kubaho. Abaja bagabirwaga inka (gutizwa) bahindukaga abagaragu b’Abatutsi (se buja = shebuja). Umugaragu rero (serviteur) wari umeze nk’imfungwa yumubeshejeho ariwe shebuja. Niwe mu rurimi rw’igifaransa bita esclave. Mucyo twakwita itegeko nshinga ry’ingoma nyiginya (ubwiru) ubwami bwari bushingiye ku moko abiri (clans) : Abanyiginya babyaraga umwami, Abega bakabyara umugabekazi (nyina w’umwami).Dore uko byavugwaga mu gisigo :

« Irabahetse ingoma yacu,
Ihora yambaye abahinza,
Abanyiginya bayibyarira imfizi,
Abega bakayibyarira insumba »

Muri ubwo butegetsi, umwami (souverain) yari nyir’u Rwanda (propriétaire exclusif du Rwanda). Abagore bose n’abana babo bari ab’umwami, Abanyarwanda bose bakaba ingabo ze (sujets du roi). Umwami yari afite ububasha bwo kwica no gukiza ; yarutaga abantu bose « Umwami si umuntu, ni umwami ». Umwami yavukaga ari umwami, baramwereje, yavukanaga imbuto.

Mu itegeko nshinga ry’ingoma nyiginya harimo amazina 5 y’ubwami yerekanaga ibyo abayitwa bagombaga gukora. Amazina y’abami bapfaga bishwe yavuyeho. Ayo ni NSORO, NDAHIRO na RUGANZU.

Dore amazina yagumyeho:

  • MUTARA naCYILIMA : abami b’inka.
  • KIGELI na MIBAMBWE : abami b’intambara.
  • YUHI : umwami w’umuriro (pérennité de la dynastie).Umwami witwaga atyo ntiyashoboraga kwambuka Nyabarongo, yabaga mu Nduga ubuzima bwe bwose. Mu mateka, YUHI MUSINGA niwe wambutse urwo ruzi abitegetswe n’Abazungu ngo abitabe i Kigali.

Ayo mazina yakurikiranaga kuri ubu buryo :

  • A. MUTARA - KIGELI – MIBAMBWE – YUHI akabyara CYILIMA.
  • B. CYILIMA – KIGELI – MIBAMBWE – YUHI akabyara MUATRA, bityo bityo.

Ikindi ni uko abami bitwaga MUTARA, CYILIMA na YUHI bagombaga byanze bikunze kuvuka ku bagore b’abegakazi nk’uko ubwiru bwabiteganyaga. Ibi byagize ingaruka mbi kenhsi mu butegetsi bwa cyami hagati y’Abega n’Abanyiginya.

Umunsi umwe umugabekazi NYIRAMAVUGO II NYIRAMONGI w’umwegakazi yabajije umuhungu we MUTARA II RWOGERA impamvu Abega batabyara umwami. Umwami yaje gusaba abiru kubimusobanurira n’ubwo byaziraga bwose. Umugabekazi amaze kumenya ibanga ararahira avuga ko atazapfa atabonye umwami w’umwega. Ni uko Mutara amaze gutanga nyina yanga kwiyahura ngo amukirikire nk’uko byagendaka maze bagomba kumubuganizamo amata ku ngufu kugira ngo nawe atange.

MUTARA yaje gusimburwa na KIGELI IV RWABUGIRI maze Abega bakomeye barimo RWAKAGARA n’abana be barigaragaza batangira gushakisha uko umwega yazaba umwami. Bakoze uko bashoboye kugira ngo umwana w’umukobwa witwaga KANJOGERA ka RWAKAGARA mushiki wa KABARE, ariko badahuje nyina, ajye kuba i bwami kugira ngo umwami azamurongore. Ibyo rero ni byo byabaye. Icyo bikora bavuga ko umwami KIGELI IV RWABUGIRI atabyaraga ; abana yari afite bari « enfants adoptifs ». Twibukiranye ko abagore bose bari ab’umwami. Iyo yabengukaga umugore ufite umugabo, yamuzanaga n’urubyaro rwe rwose. Urugero ni nka RUTARINDWA rwa GACINYA wazanye na nyina NYIRABURUNGA.

Maze kugira ngo umunsi hazabeho umwami w’umwega, bavuga ko KANJOGERA yasambanye na musaza we KABARE bakabyarana umwana w’umuhungu witwa MUSINGA. Aha ndagira ngo twibukiranye ko iyo ikigamijwe ari ubutegetsi (pouvoir) nta kizira kibaho ; ibintu byose bishobora gukorwa kugira ngo igishakwa kigerweho. Kuri ibyo bongeraho ko RWABUGIRI yaje kumenya ayo mahano agakona KABARE. Umwami RWABUGIRI ajya gutanga ingoma yayiraze umuhungu we « adoptif » RUTARINDWA wiswe MIBAMBWE IV maze KANJOGERA nawe amubera umugabekazi ku izina rya NYIRAMIBAMWE IV kubera ko nyina NYIRABURUNGA yari yarishwe na RWABUGIRI kubera amatiku y’i bwami.

Byagenze bite kugira ngo amwice?

MURORUNKWERE wa MITARI ari we nyina wa RWABUGIRI yari atuye i Mbirima na Matovu. Yaje gucyekwaho ko atwite kandi kizira (nta n’ubwo yashoboraga gushaka undi mugabo). Iyo nda ngo yari iy’umuhutu witwaga SERUTEGANYA. Abantu barimo NNYIRABURUNGA, umugore wa RWABUGIRI nyina wa RUTARINDWA akaba n’umwisengeneza wa MURORUNKWERE, baje kubyemeza umwami bati : « Ko inzoka yizingiye ku gisabo bigende bite ? ». RWABUGIRI yahise akura amaboko kuri nyina ati : « Nimugende mwice inzoka, n’igisabo nigishaka kimeneke. » Bahise bagaba igitero i Mbirima na Matovu bajya kwica Seruteganya n’uko na Murorunkwere agwa muri iyo ntambara.

Nyuma baje kubaga MURORUNKWERE basanga baramubeshyeraga atari atwite. RWABUGIRI yarababaye cyane maze ahorera nyina ku buryo atatinye kwica umugore we NNYIRABURUNGA n’ubwo yari nyina wa RUTARINDWA wagombaga kuzaba umwami (ibyo byaje kugira ingaruka mbi kuri RUTARINDWA wimye adafite nyina).

Umwami RUTARINDWA yaguye ku Rucunshu yishwe n’Abega kugirango bagere ku byo bari bariyemeje kuva hambere. MIBAMBWE IV RUTARINDWA yasimbuwe na YUHI V MUSINGA. Nyina KANJOGERA utaranyoye (se suicider) nyuma y’urupfu rwa RUTARINDWA amubera umubera umugabekazi yitwa NYIRAYUHI V.

Ukwima kwa MUSINGA kwateye ibibazo :

RUTARINDWA yaje kwicirwa ku Rucunshu bamutwikiye mu nzu n’abe bose. Ingoma y’ingabe « Kalinga » nayo yarahiye irashanguka. Kugira ngo impagarara zihoshe, KABARE, (musaza wa KANJOGERA) yafashe MUSINGA abwira rubanda ati : « Ntimugire impagarara dore umwami ». Rubanda iti : « Biragenda bite ko ingoma y’ingabe Kalinga yari iriho ko yahiye ». KABARE yerekana ko ntangorane agira ati : « Haguma umwami ingoma irabazwa ». Kubera ko MUSINGA yari akiri muto, KABARE niwe wategetse mu kigwi cye (assurer la régence) maze abantu bakavuga ko umwami MUSINGA ari umwega koko.

MUSINGA amaze kugimbuka rero, yerekanye ko ari umunyiginya mwene RWABUGIRI. Yaje gutuma umutwa ngo afate igikeri (umwega), akice, akibage, maze uruhu rwacyo arubambe mu irembo aho KABARE n’abandi bose banyura. KABARE ahanyuze akubitwa n’inkuba ajya kubibwira mushiki we KANJOGERA. Ni uko nawe ajya kubaza umuhungu we niba azi uwakoze ibyo. Musinga amubwira ko ari we wabigize. Ni bwo KANJOGERA amubajije ati : « Mwana wanjye,wabitewe ni iki ? ». Undi ati : « Nihoreye ku wo nshyikiriye ». Ni uko KANJOGERA abwira KABARE ati: « Umwana yakuze ! ». Kuva ubwo Abega n’Abanyiginya bari bashyamiranye bashobora no kwicana iyo hataba abazungu. Urugero : dore ukuntu umwega yasekaga MUSINGA aba i Kamembe :

MUSINGA amaze gukurwa k’ubwami n’abazungu agasimburwa n’umuhungu we RUDAHIGWA, yaciriwe i Cyangugu kugira ngo abakomezaga ku muyoboka bacibwe intege n’urugendo rurerure bagombaga gukora ngo bamugereho. Ibyo ariko ntibyabujije bamwe muri bene wabo kujya kumusura.Bamwe mu Bega baziranaga n’Abanyiginya bajyaga kumushinyagurura. Umunsi umwe, RWAGATARAKA rwa RWIDEGEMBYA rwa CYIGENZA (MUSINGA yari mubyara wa RWIDEGEMBYA), wari shefu mu Kinyaga yagennye kumusura maze ajyana n’umuhutu bahuriye mu nzira yiviriye guhinga. RWAGATARAKA yabwiye uwo muhutu uko bari bubigenze bageze imbere y’uwahoze ari « Umwami Nyagasani ». Yagize ati : « Nitugerayo ndabanza muramutse. Nyuma nawe uze umuramutse uti : « Uraho MUSINGA ! Ni akubaza uwo uri we, umusubize uti : « Ndi RWABUGIRI ! ». Bageze yo bigenda uko babisezeranye. Wa muhutu yagize ati : « Uraho MUSINGA ? ». MUSINGA ati : « iii yego ! » maze amukomeza intoki agira ati : « Ariko sinkumenye ! » Wa muhutu ati : « Ndi RWABUGIRI ! » MUSINGA arahaguruka, aramuhobera cyane ati : « Mama RWANGAKUGWABIRA rwa MUGENZA ! Yooo ! Ni wowe uzutse usa utyo ? ». N’uko MUSINGA arahindukira areba RWAGATARAKA aramubwira ati : « Koko abapadiri barabivuze, ngo abapfuye bazazuka ! RWANGAKUGWABIRA wari mwiza bitangaje none akaba azutse asa atya, se sha, nka so, RWIDEGEMBYA azutse twamuhungira he ! » MUSINGA yarakomeje agira ati : « Yewe, ngicyo icyambujije kubatizwa » !

Ku ngoma ya MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA, Abanyiginya n’Abega bahoraga bahanganye bokoroshywa n’uko u Rwanda rwategekwaga n’Abazungu. Ibyo byagejeje muri 1959. Ikindi ni uko ku ngoma y’Abanyiginya, iyo havukaga ikibazo kirebana na politiki yo hejuru, urupfu ni rwo rwakoreshwaga kugira ngo igisubizo cyiza gishobore kuboneka.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwashakaga kwigarurira gihugu kindi boherezaga umucengeri muri icyo gihugu, akicirwayo, amaraso ye agatera icyo gihugu gutsindwa. Umwami RUGANZU I BWIMBA yatabaye mu Gisaka habuze undi ujyayo yirwayo akurikira mushiki we wari wiyishe ari umugore w’umwami w’i Gisaka.

Ibibazo umwami atashoboraga gukemura byatumaga yiyahura kugira ngo asimburwe n’ushobora kubirwanya. Nk’uko bizwi, MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA niwe wakoze ibyo muri 1959. Icyo gihe Abahutu bari berekanye ko batishimiye imibereho yabo ku ngoma ya cyami kandi ari rubanda nyamwinshi babeshejeho igihugu.

Twibutse ko Abazungu bageze mu Rwanda ntacyo babihinduyeho ahubwo bashyize mu mategeko yanditse ibintu uko babisanze, bijya no mu ndangamuntu. Icyo bikora muri 1955 ni bwo Abazungu bategetse umwami gukuraho ubuhake maze umugaragu na shebuja bakagabana inka bari bahurijweho n’ubuhake. Ni uko muri 1957, Abahutu bashyira ahagaragara icyifuzo cyabo cyo kugira uburenganzira busesuye nk’ubw’Abatutsi mu gihugu cyabo (Manifeste des Bahutu). Maze muri 1958 Abatutsi bagize Inama nkuru y’igihugu iyobowe n’umwami MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA bemeza ko nta kintu Abatutsi basangiye n’Abahutu, ko abavandimwe ari bo basangira, ko ubwo rero ibintu (situation) bigomba kuguma uko biri.

Ubwo rero KIGELI V NDAHINDURWA amaze kwima baratangiye bica buhoro buhoro Abahutu b’ingenzi. Ni uko taliki ya 01/11/1959 bakubita umuhutu Dominiko MBONYUMUTWA, bashaka kumwica, akizwa n’Imana. Ni uko icyo gikorwa gituma bahagurukira rimwe mu Rwanda hose, maze ibuntu birahinduka neza. Ni yo Révolution yo muri 1959. Ubutegetsi bwahinduye isura, abashefu n’abasushefu (tutsi) bavuyeho basimburwa n’aba bourgmestres. Umwami KIGELI V arananirwa arahunga, ava mu gihugu. Kuri 28/01/1961, abatowe bateranira i Gitarama bemeza ko ubwami buvuyeho, u Rwanda rubaye Repubulika, maze batora Perezida wa Repubulika Dominiko MBONYUMUTWA maze bashyiraho n’izindi nzego nkuru z’ubutegetsi.

Nyuma habaye amatora na Kamarampaka (référendum), Abanyarwanda bakuraho ubwami babusimbuza Repubulika maze igihugu gihabwa ubwigenge kuwa 01/07/1962. Ni uko abaturage, Abanyarwanda mu gihugu cy’igenga bareka kuba ingabo z’umwami baba icyo mu rurimi rw’igifaransa bita « peuple souverain », bahagarariwe kandi bayobowe na Perezida Geregori KAYIBANDA n’abadepite mu Nteko inshinga amategeko bitoreye.

IV. U Rwanda muri Repubulika

Muri Repubulika ishingiye kuri demokrasi, ibintu byarahindutse, abantu bose barareshya imbere y’amategeko.Itegeko riteganya ko abana bose bajya mu ishuri ; abanyarwanda bose batura mu mazu akomeye ; imihanda iraharurwa myinshi kandi ikomeye ; za téléphones zikwira hose mu gihugu ; ubukungu buriyongera, maze u Rwanda ruca ku bihugu byinshi byo muri Afrika.

Ntitwakwibagirwa ariko ko kugera muli 1967, abatutsi bari barahunze Révolution yo muri 1959 bari bariyise INYENZI bateye u Rwanda kenshi bashaka gukuraho Republika ngo bagarure ubwami, ariko bagatsindwa. Ndetse muri 1963, barateye bituma abatutsi bamwe bari baragumye mu Rwanda bapfa. Baje kujya kurega muri l’ONU bavuga ko mu Rwanda habaye génocide. Ni uko l’ONU yohereza mu Rwanda Commission iyobowe n’umuntu witwaga Max DORSINVILLE, gukora enquête. Ikora raporo yerekana ko nta génocide yabaye mu Rwanda.

Kuva muri 1967, abatutsi bari mu mahanga batangiye gutegura uko bazatera, ngo bigarurire ubutegetsi. Twibuke ko muri ibyo bihe, taliki ya 05/07/1973, ari bwo Général Major Juvénal HABYARIMANA yashyizeho Repubulika II, akoze coup d’Etat. Naho ubwo abateguraga intambara bari mu mahanga, baje kwibumbira muri Front Patriotique Rwandais (FPR), babona igihugu kibashyigikiye bazajya bavamo batera {Uganda}, babona ndetse n’igihugu gikomeye cyo kubashyigikira muri byose {Etats –Unis d’Amérique}.

N’ubwo abategetsi ba Repubulika bari babumvishije ko bataha, baranze baratera kugira ngo bigarurire ubutegetsi ku ngufu. Ni uko taliki ya 01/10/1990, intambara iratangira ku mupaka w’u Rwanda na Uganda muri perefegitura ya Byumba. Iyo ntambara yaratinze, ikwira mu gice kinini cy’u Rwanda maze abantu baricwa abandi bavanwa mu Rwanda.

Taliki ya 04/08/1993 ni bwo Perezida HABYARIMANA n’uhagarariye FPR- Inkotanyi bahurijwe Arusha muri Tanzaniya basinyira amahoro maze intambara irahagara. Ubwo rero Abahutu n’Abatutsi bagombaga kugabana ubutegetsi mu Rwanda.

Umunsi ibyo byagombaga gushyirwa mu bikorwa, taliki ya 05/01/1994, Perezida HABYARIMANA niwe warahiye abandi barabura kuko batifuza kugabana ubutegetsi. Bagombaga kugera ku butegetsi batsinze intambara n’uko batangira kuyitegura. Nk’uko bizwi, iyo ntambara yatangiye indege ba Perezida HABYARIMANA w’u Rwanda na NTARYAMIRA w’u Burundi barimo irashwe. Hari taliki ya 06/04/1994, saa mbiri n’igice z’ijoro.

Maze kuva ubwo ibintu biracika. Habaye intambara ikaze hagati y’abasilikare ba FAR na FPR. Ubwo kandi FPR yakoze ibishoboka kugira ngo igarure cya kirego cya kera « génocide » kugira ngo iburizemo amasezerano ya Arusha maze yiharire ubutegetsi yonyine. FPR yatsinze intambara 04.07/1994 ni uko yigarurira ubutegetsi bw’igihugu.

FPR yafashe ubutegetsi itangaza ko u Rwanda rukomeje kuba Repubulika ni uko inzego nshya z’ubutegetsi (institutions) zishyirwaho taliki ya 19/07/1994. Aha rero umuntu yakwibaza impamvu FPR itagaruye ubwami kandi uwahoze ari umwami KIGEL V NDAHINDURWA akiriho. Iyo mpamvu yagombye kuvugwa mu kiganiro cyihariye kivuga ubutegetsi bwa FPR kuva igihe yabufatiye.

V. Umwanzuro

Ngayo muri make amateka yerekeranye n’ubwami mu Rwanda n’intambara zabaye muri Repubulika kugirango ubwami bwari bwaraciwe na Révolution yo muri 1959 bwongere bugaruke. Twizere ko ubwo bwami butazongera kubona intebe mu Rwanda.

Bikorewe i Bruxelles kuwa 07 /09/2004

Karoli NKURUNZIZA

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