INGERI Z’UBUVANGANZO NYARWANDA

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INGERI Z’UBUVANGANZO NYARWANDA

Salvator Uzabakiriho , umwarimu w'Ikinyarwanda mu Iseminari Mutagatifu Dominico Savio yo ku Rwesero

IBIRI MURI IYI NYANDIKO

Ubuvanganzo nyarwanda babugabanyamo ibice bibiri: ubuvanganzo nyemvugo n’ubuvanganzo nyandiko.

1. UBUVANGANZO NYEMVUGO

Ni ibyahimbwe n’abantu ba kera batazwi neza bahimbaga batandika, bakabifata mu mutwe. Ibyo bahimbaga babishyikirizaga ab’igihe cyabo bikabizihira mu bitaramo , bakagenda babiraga abo basize, bityo bityo bigahinduka uruhererekane. Ubuvanganzo nyemvugo na bwo bwari bugabanyijemo ibice bibiri:

  • Ubuvanganzo nyemvugo bwo muri rubanda giseseka
  • Ubuvanganzo nyemvugonyabami

UBUVANGANZO NYEMVUGO NYABAMI

Bwari bukubiyemo ibintu byinshi byari byerekeranye n’ibwami, abami, ingoma ya cyami n’ibindi bijyanye na yo. Mu buvanganzo nyemvugo nyabami twavugamo: ubwiru, ubucurabwenge, ibitekerezo by’ingabo, ibyivugo, indirimbo z’ingabo, ibisigo nyabami, amazina y’inka.

UBUVANGANZO NYEMVUGO BWO MURI RUBANDA GISESEKA

Bwari bukubiyemo ibintu byinshi byari byarasakaye muri rubanda. Ikibutandukanya cyane na nyemvugo nyabami ni uko bwo butari buhishe cyangwa hari abantu bake bugenewe nk’ibisigo, ubwiru, ubucurabwenge,...Mu ngeri z’ubuvanganzo nyemvugo bwo muri rubanda twavugamo:imigani miremire, ibitekerezo, imigani migufi (imigenurano), insigamigani, ibitutsi, ibisakuzo, ibihozo, amavumvu, amasare, amahigi, amagorane, ibitongero (mu kuragura, guterekera, gutukura umwana, kwambika imana zeze, guhura, kugangahura, guhanura, kugombora, kuroga,…), indirimbo z’imandwa, uturingushyo, indirimbo z’inanga, ibihamagaro, amajuri, amahamba, indahiro, ibyidogo by’isuka,…

ZIMWE MU NGERI Z’UBUVANGANZO NYEMVUGO

A. UBUVANGANZO NYEMVUGO NYABAMI

A. 1. IBISIGO (NYABAMI)

INTANGIRIRO

Ibisigo bikunze kwitwa nyabami byatangiye ku ngoma ya Ruganzu Ndoli; ni bwo byatangiye kwitwa bityo. Mbere hari ibyitwaga ibinyeto (riva ku nshinga kunyeta bivuga gusingiza cyangwa kurata). Mu binyeto Kagame avuga ko umusizi yahangaga agasingizo kagufi k’imirongo nk’icumi cyangwa makumyabiri, kakaba ari ak’umwami umwe, umwe. Nyuma, ku ngoma ya Ruganzu ni bwo Nyirarumaga yize uburyo bwo guhuriza mu gisigo kimwe abami benshi cyangwase akavuga umwami umwe mu gisigo kirekire. Mu kubitangira yahurije bya binyeto mu gisigo kimwe yise “Umunsi ameza imiryango yose”.

Mbere abahanzi b’ibinyeto bitwaga “abenge”. Bityo guhera ubwo wa mwengekazi w’umusingakazi atangije ubwo buryo bushya, bitwa abasizi. Abandi benge bahise bamukurikiza maze kuva icyo gihe bahabwa agaciro ibwami kandi ibwami akaba ari na bo babagenga. Abasizi bashyize hamwe, bakagira gahunda y’uko bazajya batura umwami ibisigo banarema umutwe uyoborwa n’”intebe y’abasizi”. Abasizi nta kindi basabwaga gukora uretse guhimba.

AMOKO Y’IBISIGO NYABAMI

Ibisigo nyabami birimo amoko atatu: ibisigo by’ikobyo, ibisigo by’ibyanzu n’ibisigo by’impakanizi.

a) IKOBYO /IKUNGU

Ni ibisigo bigiye umujyo umwe, bikagira interuro (intangiriro) n’umusayuko. Ntibigira ibika bitandukanye ahubwo byo bigiye umujyo umwe. Aho bihuriye n’ibindi ni uko bigira indezi (amagambo asingiza umwami). Birahurutuye, nta n’ubwo ari birebire.

Urugero tugomba gusesengura ni : “None imana itumije abeshi” cyasizwe na Mutsinzi agitura Kigeli Rwabugili amuhanuririra abaroze se Rwogera ngo abarimbure (Abagereka bo kwa Rugereka) (Igitabo cy’imyandiko, umwaka wa gatandatu, p. )

b) IBYANZU

Ni ibisigo bigabanijwemo ibika bita ibyanzu bigiye bitandukanywa n’inyikirizo. Mu byanzu, iyo bavuga amateka y’abami ntibabakurikiranya uko bagiye bima ingoma n’uko ibikorwa byabo byagiye bikurikirana.

Urugero tugomba gusesengura ni: “Naje kubara unkuru” cyahimbwe na Sekarama ka Mpumba agitura Rwabugiri mbere yo gutera i Ndorwa. (Igitabo cy’imyandiko, umwaka wa gatandatu, p. )

Icyo gihe igikomangoma cyo mu Ndorwa cyari cyatumyeho Rwabugiri ngo bamubwire ko na we ari umwami kandi akitwa Rugaju. Ibyo bikibutsa ko Gahindiro wari wigaruriye Ndorwa yishwe na Rugaju rwa Mutimbo, Ndorwa ikaba inyazwe Rugaju. Igihe Rwabugiri yari amaze gutsinda yongeye guturwa igisigo cyitwa:”Bahiriwe n’urugendo”.

c) IMPAKANIZI

Ni ibisigo usanga umusizi yaragendaga avuga amateka y’abamin’ibikorwa byabo abakurikiranya uko bagiye bima ingoma, agaheruka uwo atura igisigo. Impakanizi yagiraga ibice by’ingenzi bitatu:

  • Interuro, umusizi avugamo muri rusange ibyo agiye gukomozaho ku bami bose no kugaragaza ko aje kurabukira umwami.
  • Igihimba, kigizwe n’ibika bivuga abamibigenda bitandukanywa n’inyikirizo yitwa impakanizi.
  • Umusayuko, umusizi asingizamo umwami agitura uri ku ngoma ndetse akaba yaboneraho no kwisabira umuriro.

Urugero rugomba gusesengurwa mu ishuri ni “Ukwibyara gutera ababyeyi ineza” cya Nyakayonga ka Musare wa Karimunda. (Igitabo cy’imyandiko, umwaka wa 6, p.?)

N.B.: 1) Uretse ubwo bwoko butatu tumaze kubona hari n’ibisigo by’ubuse bamwe bita “ibyivugo by’ubuse”. Muri byo umusizi yashoboraga gutera umwami cyangwa abandi ubuse, abavugaho ibintu bisa n’ibisebya kandi bisekeje. Uwo bavugaga ntiyagombaga kurakara, naho iyo yarakaraga bakamwita igifura. Bene ibyo bisigo by’ubuse ni byo Kagame yiganye mu guhimba “Indyoheshabirayi”kuko na yo itera ubuse, umwami Rudahigwa n’abatware ku bijyanye n’ubusambo bw’ingurube.

2) Mu kuvuga umwami n’ibyo yakoze, abasizi birindaga kugaragaza amakosa umwami yaba yarakoze. Musare yahagaritswe ku ngoma ya Kigeri Ndabarasa kubera ko ngo yari yaserereje umwami. Ngurusi na we yavuze amakosa y’umwami ku ngoma ya Kigeri Rwabugiri ariko nta cyo bamutwaye. Hari aho yari yagize ati: “Mbwire umwami urugo ruzatwika urwe, awucirira hakiri kare” mu gisigo cyitwa “Urugo rugwije imbaga” Rwabugiri ni ko kumubwira ati “noneho si ugusiga urasebanya”. Ruhinda rwa Kinyakura ngo na we hari aho yavuze ibyerekeye n’ubwiru ku ngoma ya Yuhi Mazimpaka, bamushyira ku ngoyi. Ni mu gisigo cyitwa “Ndi umupfumu w’inka”, yaje gusaba imbabazi mu gisigo yise “Ndi umuyoboke w’abami”.

UMUBARE W’IBISIGO

J.Vansina avuga ko ngo ibisigo nyabami byose hamwe byaba bigera kuri 400, Kagame we yashoboye kubarura ibigera kuri 176 n’ibindi 42 biziwe interuro gusa byose hamwe bikaba 218. G. Mbonimana we ahamya ko birenga 300. Dukurikije uko imbonerahamwe ibyerekana, kuva ku ngoma ya Ruganzu Ndori kugeza kuri Yuhi Gahindiro dusanga hari ingoma zasizweho cyane n’izindi umuntu yavuga ko ubusizi bwacumbagurikaga. Impamvu yaba iyihe? Tutibagiwe ko hari n’abami batavugwa kandi barategetse igihe kinini: ku ngoma ya Ruganzu Ndoli, Kigeri Nyamuheshera ndetse na Gisanura, abasizi bari bake cyane. Urebye ni nk’aho ari Muguta wenyine wabasigiye ibisigo umunani.

KU NGOMA YA YUHI MAZIMPAKA:

Ku ngoma ye ibisigo byariyongereye kubera ko na we yari umusizi bitaga “umusizi w’umusinzi n’umusazi”. Mazimpaka yarwanijwe na mwene nyina Nyagasheja ahungira i Gatsibo mu Ndorwa. Aho afatiye ubutegetsi, bene Nyagasheja arabarimbura. Yishe bene se babiri abyohejwe n’Abakono bo kwa nyina. Mu kwihorera, amaze kumenya ukuri, arimbura Abakono bose n’ubwo nyina yari yamwinginze ngo abareke, yica abagore be babiri b’Abacyaba ngo bamuroze, icyo gihe umwami abona ko inshuti zimushizeho, bihumira ku mirari abonye umuhungwe Musigwa abakurikiye kandi ari we umwishe, biramubabaza cyane, ni ko gusiga igisigo cy’intashyo y’abasigaye ati:

”Singikunda ukundi”

”Singikunda ukundi
Ibyo nkunda ntibinkundira
Aho kunkunda birampunga bikigira gukungika kure
Gukunda ikitagukunda ni nk’imvura igwa mu ishyamba”.

Bamwe bavuga ko ku ngoma ye habonetse ibisigo bigera kuri 12. Uretse ibisigo bye bwite, abasizi bagombaga kuba barayobotse Karenera Rwaka wamusimbuye akamara imyaka 15 ariko ibya Karemera babiburijemo, ari ugushaka kwerekana ko ntawe uzungura uwo bava inda imwe. Impamvu Karemera Rwaka yavanywe ku rutonde rw’abami ni uko:

  • Yari yarabyawe n’umunyiginyakazi kandi nta munyiginyakazi wabaga umugabekazi
  • Izina rya Karemera ntiryari iry’abami b’i Rwanda
  • Ntiyari yaratowe n’abiru
  • Ikindi kandi ngo yari yarabandishijwe.

KU NGOMA YA CYILIMA RUJUGIRA

Ku ngoma ye ibisigo byashoboye kuboneka ni 29 cyakora nka G. Mbonimana we avugako byaba bigera kuri 30. Kuba ibisigo byariyongereye bituruka ku bintu byinshi byabaye ku ngoma ye:

  • Hari ukuba yarimye nyuma y’igisa n’amagomerane kubera Karemera Rwaka, kuba yarahungiye mu Gisaka no kuba ari we washyizeho bwa mbere ingerero Kuba yarimikanywe na nyina w’ikitiriro witwaga Turira wari nyina wabo akaba umukonokazi. Nyina w’ukuri witwa Kirongora yaje kuza nyuma. Mu guhunguka mu Gisaka yabifashijwemo na Busyete wari umugesera, bigatuma ubwoko bw’Abagesera bwinjizwa mu bibanda (Ega, Gesera, Ha na Kono)
  • Yabaye igihangange kuko yabaye uwa gatatu mu batekereza b’ibwami nyuma ya Gihanga na Kibaga
  • Ni we wa mbere wimitse umutware w’imandwa ibwami
  • Yarambye ku ngoma aboneraho no kororoka benshi. Abahungu be babaye ibisekuruza by’imiryango ikomeye: Abasharangabo, Ibidende, Ibikore, Abakobanyi,...
  • Yabaye umurwanashyaka anesha abamurwanyaga, arema imitwe y’ingabo igera kuri 14. Ingabo ze zarwanye n’iza’Abarundi, Abanyagisaka, Abanyandorwa, ntawakwibagirwa ko ari na zo zishe Mutaga III Sebitungwa w’i Burundi.
  • Ku ngoma ye kandi hari abasizi b’abahanga twavugamo Bagorozi na Muhabura tutibagiwe na Kalimunda. Abo bombi bigaragaje muri bya bisigo 7 bise ”ibisigo by’ibyuma”!

KUKI BYISWE IBISIGO BY’IBYUMA?

Byaturutse ku makimbirane yabaye hagati ya Kalimunda na Muhabura, ubwo Kalimunda yajyaga gucurisha amacumu (ibyuma) by’abarwanyi maze Muhabura akamurangarana, avuga ko yabanje gushaka ibikoresho by’abacengeri (abatabazi). Bityo amakimbirane aravuka, haba kwibaza niba hatsinda ingabo cyangwa abatabazi. Ibyo bituma Kalimunda ajya kurega Muhabura kwa Rujugira. Yamureze mu gisigo yise: ”Ibyuma bitsindira abami”. Mu kwiregura Muhabura yerekana ko yabanje gucura ibyangombwa by’abatabazi, abivuga mu gisigo yise: ”Ibyuma bimerira abami urubanza?”. Umwami asaba abandi basizi kumufasha guca urubanza maze uwitwa Nyamugenda asa n’ushyigikira Kalimunda mu gisigo yise ”Iyo urubanza rwagombye abakuru”. Abandi bari aho na bo bagize icyo babivugaho , ni bwo Bagorozi agize ati ”Zemeye inganzo ingongo”. Maze Muhabura, mu kwiregura asubiza Bagorozi ati ”Mbwire Bagorozi umunsi ugumye”. Umuhungu wa Muhabura witwaga Ndamira, aramwunganira mu gisigo yise:”Abatabazi bagira ubatemera”. Mwene Bagorozina we yunganira se mu gushyigikira Kalimunda ati”Urubanza ruhari ntiruhumburwa” asa n’ushaka kuvuga ko urubanza rwaciwe n’umwami rudasubirwamo.

Muri ibyo bisigo kandi banajyaga impaka kugira ngo bagaragaze umusizi w’umuhanga kurusha undi.

KU NGOMA YA NDABARASA.

N’ubwo Ndabarasa na we yabaye intwari cyane, agatsinda i Ndorwa y’Abashambo, akongera inka mu gihugu azikuye mu Nkole no mu Bumpaka, akigarurira Umubali amaze kwica Biyoro na Nyirabiyoro, yasigiwe ibisigo bine gusa.

Ndabarasa yateye i Butembo ashaka kugumayo ngo ahimenyereze ni bwo abiru batumye Kibarake kujya kumuhamagara, babimutuma mu gisigo cyahimbwe na Musare cyitwa”Mbwire umwami uko abandi bami bantume Byangabwana”. Kibarake aragenda arakimubwira. Nuko Ndabarasa ngo yaba yaramukubise ni bwo Kibarake agarutse abasubiza mu gisigo cye yise”Batewe n’iki uburake”. Ngo na bo baramukubise asubirayo yongera kubwira Ndabarasa mu kindi gisigo cyahimbwe na Musare kitwa”None wamaze ubuhinge”. Ndabarasa arabihorera. Nyuma yaje kuharwarira ibikoba (indwara y’imitsi bamwe bita imitezi). Atari yagaruka se yahise yimika umwuzukuru we Sentabyo. Ndabarasa yaje gupfira mu Ndorwa. Ku ngoma ye kandib abanyandorwa bari baramutuye igisigo ”Agati bamanitse abami”.

Birashoboka ko impamvu yatuwe ibisigo ari uko yiberaga hanze arwana, ikindi kandi mu rwimo rwe nta magomerane yabaye kuko se yari yaramwimitse atarapfa.

KU NGOMA YA SENTABYO

N’ubwo yamaze igihe gito ku ngoma (imyaka 5) ku ngoma ye habonetse ibisigo bigera kuri 21. Ibyo bikaba biterwa n’uko se amaze gupfa habaye ibyo kurwanira ingoma n’ubwo yari yarimitswe na sekuru se atarapfa. Bene se na bo bashakaga gutegeka. Barimo Ruzamba na Katarabuhura na nyina, bashyigikiwe na Rukari. Hari abandi bari bashyigikiwe na Gasenyi. Ibyo byose byavuzwe mu bisigo nka”Umwami si umuntu na ”Ko bavuga iridakuka abami”. Aho amariye gutsinda, ashyigikiwe na Kimanuka na Vuningoma waNyarwaya, ndetse na nyina Nyiratamba (umwegakazi) na Nkebya hamwe n’abiru b’abatsobe ari na bo bari bakomeye kuruta abandi, abasizi bahise bapfunuka ari benshi baje kumushimira ko yatsinze. Urugero ni ”Ntawe urenga icyo azira” cyari ikinyeto cya Gatarabuhura. Umusizi Muganza agira ati:

Ko abatindi bakibeshya kwinshi
Ko bagize ngo bageze barore
Bakure ibyo Imana yavuze
Ibyo Murema yaremye
Umwami aba ari Imana akabonwa n’iyindi
Ikamuha izina akima agahaka abantu
Uwo Imana yameneye amata
Ntiyunamuzwa amaboko

Sentabyo yishwe n’iseru akiri umusore nta kana.Ubwo hahise haba ”Coup d’Etat”: Nkebya na Baryinyonza bashyigikira Nyiratunga, wari umupfakazi wa Gihana cya Rujugira wari warapfuye ari umucengeri i Burundi. Ubwo Nyiratunga akaba yari amaze kubyara Gahindiro, abanza gutegekerwa na nyina kuko yari akiri muto.

KU NGOMA YA GAHINDIRO

Se yatanze ari bwo akivuka ku buryo yabanje gutegekerwa na nyina witwaga Nyiratunga. Abaturage ntibari bamuzi igihe yagirwaga umwami. Amaze gukura yigaragaje nk’umwami ucisha make kandi witonda. Ku ngoma ye ibisigo byashoboye kuboneka bigera kuri 12.

KU NGOMA YA RWOGERA

Uyu na we yimye akiri muto abanza gutegekerwa na nyina witwaga Nyiramavugo Nyiramongi mushiki wa Rwakagara rwa Gaga, bakundaga kwita umwogabyano kubera uburanga yari afite. Kwima kwa Mutara Rwogera kwahise gukurikirana n’intsinzi y’Abanyarwanda kuri Ntare IV Rugamba w’u Burundi ndetse no kwigarurira i Gisaka. Ibyo byatumye abasizi barabukira umwami bwangu maze bamutura ibisigo bigera kuri 30. Rugaju rwa Mutimbo wari inkundwakazi y’akadasohoka ya se ni bwo yanyazwe aricwa n’umuryango we wose, ahagana mu w’ 1848. Rwogera yari afite ingabo z’intwari zamurwaniriye, kandi yahanze n’indi mitwe irimo itorero Abakwiye yabyirukiyemo, umutwe witwa Inzirabwoba za Nkoronko, Uruyange zaRugaju zaje guhabwa Rwakagara se wa Kanjogera. Hakaba Intaganzwa za Marara, Abashakamba za Nkusi ya Gahindiro, Imvejuru za Nyarwaya, Urutesi n’abakemba za Rwihimba n’abandi. Izo ngabo ni zo zamuhaye gutsinda Abarundi mu gitero cya Rwagatana. Ku ngoma ye ni bwo habaye igitero kizwi cyane cy’Imbungiramihigo kwa Makombe ho mu Bushi.

KU NGOMA YA RWABUGIRI

Ku ngoma ye habonetse ibisigo byinshi ugereranije n’abandi bami. Habonetse ibisaga 40. Ibyo bituruka ku mpamvu nyinshi zitandukanye:

  • Yarambye ku ngoma
  • Yari igisare gitegekesha igitugu, akica umubangamiye wese (Havugwa ko yakundaga kunywa inzoga maze ushatse kugira uwo yicisha akabimubwira (kuregesha umugono) akamutanga atabizi).
  • Yaharaniye ikuzo abigaragariza mu bitero yagabye akigarurira ibihugu, mu kuvugurura ubutegetsi no kwiyegereza abamusingiza (abasizi).

Mu kiciro cya kabiri abatavugwamo ni Mibambwe Rutarindwa wategetse amezi 16 mbere yo gupfira ku Rucunshu ahagana mu 1986. Yabanje gutegekana na Rwabugiri ku buryo no mu bisigo babavugwamo bombi Sezisoni wiswe Rwabugiri amaze kwima, akaba avuka kuri Murorunkwere na Nkoronko, yaje gushyingirwa abakobwa batatu ba nyirarume Nzirumbanje, babiri muri bo bataha iwe bafite abana, abo bana b’abazanano barimo Muhigirwa na Rutarindwa, Rwabugiri abagira abe arabiyitirira asa n’ukurikiza urugero rwa Rwogera wamwimitse kandi atari uwe. Nguko uko yimitse Mibambwe Rutarindwa waje kwigizwayo n’Abega ku ntambara yo ku Rucunshu kubera muka se Kanjogera washakaga ko muhungu we Musinga ari we wima.

KU NGOMA YA MUSINGA

Ku ngoma ye habonetse ibisigo bigera kuri 9 gusa kubera ko agaciro k’ubwami kasaga n’agatangiye kugabanuka; ni bwo abazungu baje mu Rwanda, bakaba ari bo basaga n’abari hejuru ye. Aaaaaaicyamuranze cyane ni uko yagerageje kurwanya abakoro ni kugeza n’ubwo abizize bakamukura ku ngoma ndetse bakamwirukana mu gihugu, bakimika ku buryo bunyuranije n,ubwiru muhungu we Rudahigwa.

KU NGOMA YA RUDAHIGWA

Ku ngoma ye naho habonetse ibisigo bike, birindwi gusa. Yaranzwe no kuba ari umwami wakoranye n’abakoroni bamwimitse, avanaho ubuhake n’ibindi byagiye biranga ingoma zamubanjirije, abazungu bamaze kubona ko ari umwami washakaga ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda bahisemo kumwivugana mu buryo butasobanukiye Abanyarwanda. Nta yindi mpamvu yabiteye ni uko babonaga bizabagora gushyira mu bikorwa politiki yabo ya”Diviser pour reigner”.

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